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Original Research

Low Prevalence of AHA-Defined Ideal Cardiovascular Health Factors: A Study of Urban Indian Men and Women

Authors:

Balkishan Gupta,

Department of Medicine, Sarder Patel Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Bikaner, IN
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Rajeev Gupta ,

Krishna K. Sharma,

Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, IN
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Arvind Gupta,

Jaipur Diabetes Research Centre, Jaipur, IN
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Tulika G. Mahanta,

Department of Community Medicine, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, IN
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Prakash C. Deedwania

University of California San Francisco, Fresno, CA, US
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Abstract

Background: Coronary heart disease risk factors are widely prevalent among urban subjects in India but the prevalence of good cardiovascular health is unknown.

Objectives: This multisite study sought to determine the prevalence of American Heart Association–defined ideal cardiovascular health factors.

Methods: The study was performed in 11 cities using cluster sampling. Middle-class urban subjects ages 20 to 75 years (N = 6,198; men: 3,426; women: 2,772, response: 62%) were evaluated for socioeconomic, biophysical, and biochemical factors. Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health using 7-factor American Heart Association metric (nonsmoking, moderate or greater physical activity, low-fat, high-fruit/vegetable diet, body mass index <25 kg/m2, untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, cholesterol <200 mg/dl, and fasting glucose <100 mg/dl) was determined. Descriptive statistics are reported.

Results: Age-adjusted prevalences of ideal health factors in men and women, respectively, were non-tobacco use in 72.0% and 89.6%, moderate physical activity in 20.1% and 20.6%, healthy diet in 10.6% and 10.6%, normal body mass index in 57.7% and 52.8%, normotension in 17.1% and 22.4%, normocholesterolemia in 72.4% and 72.7%, and normoglycemia in 57.4% and 59.5%. Prevalence of all the 7 health factors was in <1.0% in both men and women, any 6 in 3.4% and 3.5%, any 5 in 12.7% and 17.8%, any 4 in 36.9% and 44.7%, any 3 in 67.2% and 70.8%, any 2 in 89.1% and 92.4%, and 1 in 98.2% and 99.1%. Cardiovascular health was poor (1 to 3 factors) in 62.4% of men and 54.9% of women, average (4 to 5 factors) in 34.1% and 41.5%, and good (6 factors) in 3.5% and 3.6%. With increasing age, the behavioral health factors (tobacco use, physical activity, healthy diet) did not change, whereas others declined (ptrend < 0.01). Clustering of average and good health factors also declined with age (ptrend < 0.01). There were no socioeconomic statuserelated differences in prevalence of good cardiovascular health.

Conclusions: Good cardiovascular health factors—physical activity, healthy diet, and desirable body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose levels—are low in urban Asian Indians.

Highlights

  • Coronary heart disease risk factors are widely prevalent in India, but the prevalence of good cardiovascular health is unknown.
  • We performed a population-based study in 11 cities using cluster sampling; 6,198 subjects (55.3% men) were evaluated for socioeconomic, biophysical, and biochemical factors. Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health using the American Heart Association 7-factor metric was determined.
  • Ideal health factors were, in men and women, respectively, no-tobacco use in 72.0% and 89.6%, moderate physical activity in 20.1% and 20.6%, healthy diet in 10.6% and 10.6%, normal body mass index in 57.7% and 52.8%, normotension in 17.1% and 22.4%, normocholesterolemia in 72.4% and 72.7%, and normoglycemia in 57.4% and 59.5%. Cardiovascular health was poor (1 to 3 factors) in 62.4% of men and 54.9% of women, average (4 or 5 factors) in 34.1% and 41.5%, and good (≥6 factors) in 3.5% and 3.6%.
  • This study shows low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health in urban Asian Indians.
How to Cite: Gupta B, Gupta R, Sharma KK, Gupta A, Mahanta TG, Deedwania PC. Low Prevalence of AHA-Defined Ideal Cardiovascular Health Factors: A Study of Urban Indian Men and Women. Global Heart. 2017;12(3):219–25. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2014.09.004
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Published on 01 Sep 2017.
Peer Reviewed

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