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Remote preconditioning by aortic constriction: Does it afford cardioprotection similar to classical or other remote ischaemic preconditioning? Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase

Authors:

Ashish Kumar Sharma ,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Arshee Munajjam,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Bhawna Vaishnav,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Richa Sharma,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Kunal Kishore,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Ashok Sharma,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Akash Sharma,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Divya Sharma,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Rita Kumari,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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Ashish Tiwari,

Department of Pharmacology, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302025, IN
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B.P. Srinivasan,

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Department of Pharmacology, Pushp Vihar, Sector-III, New Delhi 110017, IN
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Shyam Sunder Agarwal

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Department of Pharmacology, Pushp Vihar, Sector-III, New Delhi 110017, IN
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Abstract

Purpose of the research: Does remote preconditioning by aortic constriction (RPAC) afford cardioprotection similar to classical or other remote ischaemic preconditioning stimulus? Moreover, the study was also designed to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in remote preconditioning by aortic constriction. There are sufficient evidence that ‘ischaemic preconditioning’ has surgical applications and affords clinically relevant cardioprotection. Transient occlusion of the circumflex artery, renal artery, limb artery or mesenteric artery preconditions the myocardium against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in case of ischaemic heart disease leading to myocardial infarction. Here, the abdominal aorta was selected to produce RPAC.

The principal results: Four episodes of ischaemia/reperfusion of 5 min each to the abdominal aorta produced RPAC by assessment of infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CK). These studies suggest RPAC produced acute (FWOP) and delayed (SWOP) cardioprotective effects. RPAC demonstrated a significant decrease in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced release of LDH, CK and extent of myocardial infarct size. L-NAME (nitro-L-arginine-methylester) (10 mg kg–1 I.V.), aminoguanidine (150 mg kg–1 s.c.), aminoguanidine (300 mg kg–1 s.c.), S-methyl isothiourea (3 mg kg–1 I.V.) and 1400W (1 mg kg–1 I.V.) administered 10 min. before global ischaemia/reperfusion produced no marked effect. Aminoguanidine (150 mg kg–1 s.c.), aminoguanidine (300 mg kg–1 s.c.), S-methyl isothiourea (3 mg kg–1 I.V.) and 1400W (1 mg kg–1 I.V.) pre-treatment after RPAC produced no significant effect on acute RPAC-induced decrease in LDH, CK and infarct size, whereas L-NAME (10 mg kg–1 I.V.) increased RPAC-induced decrease in LDH, CK and infarct size. The most interesting observation is with respect to delayed RPAC, where all NOS inhibitors’ pre-treatment attenuate RPAC-induced decrease in LDH, CK and infarct size.

Major conclusions: RPAC affords cardioprotection similar to classical or other remote ischaemic preconditioning stimulus. Moreover, late or delayed phase of RPAC has been mediated iNOS, whereas it is not involved in acute RPAC.

How to Cite: Sharma AK, Munajjam A, Vaishnav B, Sharma R, Kishore K, Sharma A, et al.. Remote preconditioning by aortic constriction: Does it afford cardioprotection similar to classical or other remote ischaemic preconditioning? Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Global Heart. 2011;6(1):15–33. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvdpc.2010.12.001
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Published on 01 Jan 2011.

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