Objective: To determine the cardiovascular disease risk factor profile of Pakistani patients.
Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, 10,000 patients with CVD were recruited. This 1 year study was conducted in the outpatient department of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), which provides primary, secondary and tertiary cardiac care to patients from all over the country. The CVD risk factors studied included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, inactivity, eating <5 portions of fruits and/or vegetables per day.
Results and discussion: Of the study participants 73.5% were males while 26.5% were females. Their average age was 53.83 ± 14.18 years and 51.68 ± 15.83 years, respectively. The frequency of premature CVD was 27.2% in males and 49.1% in females. 46.9% males and 77.4% females had abdominal obesity, 15.6% men and 1.9% women being current smokers. Blood cholesterol levels were >200 mg/dl in 10% of all study subjects. In a decreasing order, poor lipid values were seen for HDL, VLDL, TG, cholesterol, LDL and LDL/HDL. Diabetes and hypertension affected 18.5% and 8% study subjects, respectively. Mean BMI was 21.02 kg/m2 in men and 22.41 kg/m2 in women. 64.5% participants did not take five or more servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day. 66% males and 68% females were physically inactive.
Conclusion: Risk factors in Pakistani patients can be rank ordered as abdominal obesity, eating <5 portions of fruits and/or vegetables per day, HDL, physical inactivity, diabetes, VLDL, TG, smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, obesity, LDL, LDL/HDL and alcohol.
Kayani, Azhar Mahmood, Nausheen Bakht, Rubab Munir, and Irum Abid. 2011. “The Mosaic of CVD Risk Factors – A Study on 10,000 Pakistani Cardiac Patients”. Global Heart 6 (1): 1–7. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvdpc.2010.10.002
Kayani, Azhar Mahmood, Nausheen Bakht, Rubab Munir, and Irum Abid. “The Mosaic of CVD Risk Factors – A Study on 10,000 Pakistani Cardiac Patients”. Global Heart 6, no. 1 (2011): 1–7. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvdpc.2010.10.002