Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been labeled as ‘‘epidemic” only in recent years. A population-based study in China revealed that 0.8% of Chinese are currently afflicted by AF with an absolute number of over 10 million. The latest population census revealed that older people (>60 years) account for 11% of the general population and they are expected to surpass 400 million by 2045. The prevalence of AF is driven up with the expansion of the elderly population, and the estimated number of AF patients in China is projected to surpass 25 million by 2045. AF has long been deemed a non-fatal disease, as reflected by an underemphasis on stroke prevention and rate control in China. Limitations of treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs stimulated the development of catheter ablation therapy. Chinese physicians started to treat AF by catheter ablation in 1998, and recently, 3-D mapping system guided ablation has gained in popularity. According to the China AF Ablation Registry, 5626 patients have received AF ablation up to 2006. From the latest experience, ablation renders a cumulative success rate of 70–80%. However, the long-term efficacy of this treating modality in the Chinese remains to be defined. With improvement in education and knowledge of AF disease, medication-based management, including anticoagulation and rate control, is also enhanced.