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Cardiovascular risk factors for heart disease and stroke in women by age and time since menopause, in seven Latin American cities: The CARMELA study

Authors:

Palmira Pramparo ,

InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Dallas, TX, US
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Herman Schargrodsky,

Italian Hospital, Buenos Aires, AR
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Carlos Boissonnet,

Centro de Educación Medica e Investigaciones Clínicas ‘Norberto Quirno’, Buenos Aires, AR
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Beatriz Marcet Champagne,

InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Dallas, TX, US
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Honorio Silva,

Center for Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Harvard, MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, US
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Monica Acevedo,

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Pontificia Universidad, Santiago, CL; Women and Heart Disease Committee, World Heart Federation, US
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Elinor Wilson

Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, Ottawa, CA
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Abstract

Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in women in Latin America remains uncertain and may be different among regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in relation to age and time since menopause in the female population of the Carmela study.

Methods: The CARMELA study is a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study in 11,550 adults aged 25–64 years. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in 6119 women according to age and time from menopause was studied in Barquisimeto (Venezuela), Bogotá (Colombia), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Lima (Perú), México City (México), Quito (Ecuador), and Santiago (Chile).

Results: The mean age was 44 years. Menopause was reported by 2439 women. Hypertension increased after the age of 35 years in Barquisimeto and Mexico City; metabolic syndrome also showed an increase from that age in Barquisimeto and Lima. The prevalence of tobacco use was high among youth in Santiago and Buenos Aires. Overweight and obesity increased at an early age in some cities. Diabetes increased at age 45 in Bogota´ and Mexico City. The impact of time from menopause on low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and hypertension was different among cities. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remained constant with age and time from menopause.

Conclusions: Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in women have been found among cities. Some increased alarmingly at young ages, consequently the time from menopause did not show an equal impact on risk factors. Tailored interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention are needed in the region.

How to Cite: Pramparo P, Schargrodsky H, Boissonnet C, Champagne BM, Silva H, Acevedo M, et al.. Cardiovascular risk factors for heart disease and stroke in women by age and time since menopause, in seven Latin American cities: The CARMELA study. Global Heart. 2008;3(4):181–9. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvdpc.2008.08.002
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Published on 01 Dec 2008.

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